Course Objectives:

This three-day training offers you an introduction to SQL. You will learn the concepts of the powerful SQL programming language and discover essential SQL skills that allow developers to write queries against single and multiple table, manipulate data in tables and create database objects. Most of this training focuses on SQL commands to create basic and advanced data queries and joins.

Attended audience:

This SQL fundamentals training is intended for anyone who needs to use SQL to update or query databases, either on its own or within another development environment.


None. A basic understanding of relational databases will be an advantage, but is not essential.

Course Syllabus:

Module 1: Introduction

  • Course Objectives and Agenda
  • Overview of relational database management, concepts and terminologies
  • Introduction to SQL and its development environments
  • SQL Tools (Toad)
  • Schema and tables used in the Course

Module 2: SELECT Statement

  • Basic SELECT statement
  • Arithmetic expressions and NULL handling
  • Column aliases
  • Different operators and the DISTINCT Clause

Module 3: Restricting and Sorting Data

  • WHERE Clause
  • BETWEEN / IN /LIKE Conditions
  • Rules of precedence for operators in an expression
  • ORDER BY Clause

Module 4: Using Single-Row Functions to Customize Output

  • Describe the differences between single row and multiple row functions
  • Manipulate strings with character function in the SELECT and WHERE clauses
  • Number functions ROUND, TRUNC and MOD
  • Perform arithmetic operation with date data
  • Manipulate dates with the date functions

Module 5: Using Conversion Functions and Conditional Expressions

  • Implicit and explicit data type conversion
  • Conversion functions TO_CHAR, TO_NUMBER and TO_DATE
  • Nest multiple functions
  • Apply the NVL, NULLIF and COALESCE functions to data
  • Use conditional IF THEN ELSE logic in a SELECT statement
  • DECODE statement
Module 6: Group Functions and Aggregation

  • GROUP BY Clause
  • Creating Groups of Data
  • HAVING Clause

Module 7: Displaying Data From Multiple Tables Using Joins

  • Introduction to JOINS
  • Types of Joins
  • Natural join
  • Self-join
  • Non equijoins
  • OUTER join

Module 8: Using Subqueries to Solve Queries

  • Introduction to Subqueries
  • Single Row Subqueries
  • Multiple Row Subqueries

Module 9: Using the SET Operators

  • SET Operators
  • UNION and UNION ALL operator
  • INTERSECT operator
  • MINUS operator
  • ORDER BY clause in SET operations

Module 10: Managing Tables using DML statements

  • Data Manipulation Language
  • INSERT / UPDATE / DELETE / MERGE statements
  • Database Transactions COMMIT, ROLLBACK

Module 11: DDL Introduction

  • Introduction to Data Definition Language
  • CREATE TABLE / INDEX / VIEW statements